How Does USB Electrical Interfaces Work?

When you plug a USB device into your computer, what is happening behind the scenes? How does your computer know to send power and data to the device? USB electrical interfaces are responsible for conveying these signals between devices.

USB electrical interfaces are composed of four main components: power pins, ground pins, signal pins, and a VBUS. The power pins provide 5 volts of power to the device, while the ground pins provide a common ground for the device and the computer. The signal pins carry data between the devices. The VBUS pin provides 5 volts of power to the bus-powered devices.

The USB electrical interface works by using two voltage levels: 0 volts and 5 volts. 0 volts is used as a low voltage, while 5 volts is used as a high voltage. These voltages are sent through the signal pins to convey information between devices.